It falls on the network administrator or engineer to design and deploy the network at an organization. Here is how you determine the best network design to follow:
The most important factor is distance. The distance from the switch room to your farthest end-user will determine the design of the network. There are two options at this stage.
In a compact work environment where the distance from the end-user to the switch room is not greater than 100 yards, you can do a direct run of network cable from the user’s wall outlet to the switch. The direct run is the best method and provides the most amount of network bandwidth for your users as they directly connect to the main switched network.
When dealing with large distances between users and the central switch room, then you have to follow the core-edge model. In this model, there is a central core switch. At each building or section of the office, there is an edge switch which connects to the core switch. With this model, there is a short cable run from the user to the edge switch and another cable (usually fiber) from the edge switch to the core switch. The issue with this method is the bottleneck between the core switch and the edge switch.
In both cases, when a certain department or segment of users require more bandwidth to specific services like storage, it is placed on their network segment and interconnected locally. We treat wireless access points the same as an end user device fixing them near meeting rooms and open areas.